Givnish, Thomas J. , Van Ee, Benjamin , Barfuss, Michael , Riina, Ricarda , Schulte, Katharina , Horres, Ralf , Gonsiska, P. A. , Jabaily, Rachel Schmidt , Crayn, Darren , Smith, Andrew , Winter, Klaus , Brown, Gregory K. , Evans, Timothy M. , Holst, Bruce K. , Luther, Harry E. , Till, Walter , Zizka, Georg , Berry, Paul E. , Sytsma, Kenneth J. .
Classification, adaptive radiation, and geographic diversification in Bromeliaceae: insights from a new multi-locus phylogeny.
The slow rate of molecular evolution in Bromeliaceae, frequent morphological homoplasy, and extensive molecular and morphological divergence from the families most closely to it have hampered progress toward an understanding of evolutionary relationships within the family. Here we present a molecular phylogeny based on more than 9500 aligned bases from eight rapidly genes and spacers, for 90 ingroup taxa and three outgroups. The eight-subfamily classification recently advanced by Givnish et al. is supported. Brocchinioideae is sister to all other extant bromeliads; Lindmanioideae, also endemic to the Guayana Shield, diverged next, followed by Tillandsioideae. It appears that xeromorphic Hechtioideae diverged from the bromeliad spine next, followed by Navioideae (endemic to the Guayana Shield, with one species on the Brazilian Shield), Pitcairnioideae, with Puyoideae and Bromelioideae being sister to each other. Calibration of the bromeliad molecular tree against dates corresponding to non-bromeliad fossils indicates that bromeliads began to divergence from other monocots 70 Mya, and that the extant bromeliad genera began to diverge from each other only in the last 19 My. Fifty-one million years between the origin of bromeliads and initial divergence of surviving lineages helps explain the difficulty in identifying their closest relatives. Extant species of Brocchinia began to diverge from each other about 17 Mya, before almost any other genera began to diverge, helping explain why Brocchinia shows such a wide range of adaptive types. The pace of diversification accelerated greatly 13 Mya, coincident with the rise of several morphological and physiological adaptations to dry or epiphytic conditions arose, and invasion of areas peripheral to the Guayana Shield. This “bromeliad revolution” corresponds to the time of multiple origins of CAM photosynthesis, epiphytism, bird pollination, tank habit (following its initial origin in Brocchinia), and absorptive trichomes. A new model for determinants of bromeliad diversity is presented and discussed.
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1 - University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Botany, 430 Lincoln Drive, Birge Hall, Madison, WI, 53706, USA
2 - Harvard University, Botanical Museum, 26 Oxford St, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02138, USA
3 - University of Vienna, Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Faculty of Life Sciences, Rennweg 14, Vienna, A-1030 Vienna, Austria
4 - University of Michigan, Herbarium, 3600 Varsity Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48108, USA
5 - Research Institute Senckenberg, Department of Botany, Frankfurt/Main, Germany
6 - GenXPro GmbH, Altenhöferallee 3 60438, Frankfurt/Main, Germany
7 - University of Wisconsin-Madison, Botany, 430 Lincoln Dr., Birge Hall, Madison, WI, 53706, U.S.A.
8 - University of Wisconsin-Madison, Botany, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, WI, 53706, United States
9 - James Cook University, Australian Tropical Herbarium, Cairns, QLD, 4870, Australia
10 - University of Oxford, Department of Plant Sciences, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3RB, United Kingdom
11 - Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, P.O. Box 2072, Balboa, Ancón, Republic of Panama
12 - University of Wyoming, Department of Botany, 3165, 1000 E University Avenue, Laramie, Wyoming, 82071, USA
13 - Grand Valley State University, Biology Department, 1 Campus Drive, Allendale, Michigan, 49401, USA
14 - Marie Selby Botanic Gardens, 811 South Palm Avenue, Sarasota, Florida, 34236-7726, USA
15 - University of Vienna, Institute of Botany, Rennweg 14, Vienna, A-1030, Austria
16 - University of Michigan Herbarium, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 3600 Varsity Dr, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48108, USA
Presentation Type: Oral Paper:Papers for BSA Sections
Location: Cottonwood D/Snowbird Center
Date: Wednesday, July 29th, 2009
Time: 1:15 PM