Phylogenetic and functional patterns of host plants and their associated fungi: implications for symbiotic co-evolution, community interactions, and ecosystem processes
Arnold, A.E. , Miadlikowska, Jolanta , URen, Jana M. , Del Olmo-Ruiz, Mariana , Hoffman, Michele T. , Gaya, Ester , Lutzoni, Francois .
Evolutionary perspectives on the origins of endophytic fungi.
Endophytic symbioses in above-ground tissues are more ubiquitous among plants than are mycorrhizal associations, and comprise an astonishing diversity of species. In contrast to long-held views regarding their likely descent from pathogens, endophytes appear to have arisen multiple times across the evolution of Fungi in lineages that live in close association with algal photobionts in lichen thalli (i.e., endolichenic fungi). Large-scale surveys focusing on endophytes in phylogenetically diverse hosts in boreal and temperate montane systems suggest diffuse co-evolution, with branching patterns at a broad scale matching between major lineages of terrestrial plants and major lineages of Pezizomycotina. Our studies also suggest secondary colonization of early-arising plant lineages (e.g., bryophytes) by recently evolved fungi and reveal local radiations of the same major fungal lineages - but different species assemblages - in related hosts across their native ranges. These results contrast markedly with (1) the neotropics, where endophyte communities in all plants, regardless of the phylogenetic position of the host, appear dominated by more recently evolved fungal classes (e.g., Sordariomycetes); (2) non-native plants, which in many cases differ from related, co-occurring natives in their endophyte assemblages; and (3) various aspects of mycorrhizal symbioses. Hypotheses regarding the origins and uniqueness of the endophytic symbiosis in the above-ground tissues of plants will be explored.
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1 - University of Arizona, Division of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Dept. of Plant Sciences, 1140 E. South Campus Drive, P.O. Box 210036, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA
2 - Duke University, Department of Biology, 139 Biological Sciences Building, PO Box 90338, Durham, North Carolina, 27708, USA
3 - The University of Arizona, Department of Plant Sciences, Division of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, 1140 E. South Campus Drive, Forbes 303, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA
4 - University of Arizona, Department of Plant Sciences, Division of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, 1140 E. South Campus Drive, Forbes 303, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA
Presentation Type: Symposium or Colloquium Presentation
Location: Rendezvous A/Snowbird Center
Date: Wednesday, July 29th, 2009
Time: 2:15 PM