Leininger, Theodor , Martins, Andreza , Abilio , Fernanda , Smith III, Carl G. , Tidwell, Collin , Hamel, Paul , Devall, Margaret , Connor, Kristina , Wilson, A. Dan .
Pondberry (Lindera melissifolia Walt. Blume) seed and seedling predators.
Pondberry (Lindera melissifolia (Walt) Blume) is an endangered shrub that grows in periodically flooded forests of the southeastern United States. Pondberry is a dioecious, clonal species. Each female stem grows up to two meters tall and may produce many red drupes. The probability of dispersed seeds and new germinants to avoid predation is unknown in the species. This study was carried out in or near the Delta National Forest, Sharkey County, MS. Thirty seven six-week-old pondberry seedlings were planted in a 1 m2 plot at one site. In addition, at each of six sites, 25 peeled pondberry seeds were arranged on the soil surface in the center of a 30-cm2 plot within a 1 m2 plot cleared of forest floor material. Animal visitors to the seed or seedling plots were recorded using video cameras with infrared illumination. Twice weekly, the pondberry seeds or seedlings were recounted. Various animals visited the seedling and seed plots. Swamp rabbits cut or ate all the seedlings within 62 days. The animal visitors identified as possible pondberry seed predators were the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), brown thrasher (Toxostoma rufum), swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) and gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis).
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1 - State University of Sao Paulo, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, 18603-970, Brazil
2 - U.S. Forest Service, Center for Bottomland Hardwoods Research, P.O. Box 227, Stoneville, MS, 38776, USA
3 - U.S. Forest Service, Center for Bottomland Hardwoods Research, P.O. Box 227, Stoneville, MS, 38776
4 - U.S. Forest Service, Center for Bottomland Hardwoods Research, P.O. Box 227, Stoneville, Mississippi, 38776, US
5 - U.S. Forest Service, Center for Bottomland Hardwoods Research, P.O. Box 227, Stoneville, MS, 38776, USA
6 - U.S. Forest Service, Integrated Vegetation Management for Sustaining Southern Forests and Longleaf Pine Ecosystems, 520 Devall Dr., Auburn , AL , 36849, USA
Presentation Type: Oral Paper:Papers for BSA Sections
Location: Alpine B/Snowbird Center
Date: Tuesday, July 28th, 2009
Time: 1:45 PM