Kiel, Carrie , McDade, Lucinda , Daniel, Thomas F. .
Relationships among "justicioids" (Acanthaceae): strong support for some surprising aspects of relationships.
The 'justicioid' lineage (Acanthaceae: Justicieae) includes approximately 1000 species and has a geographical range that mirrors that of the entire family, occurring in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions worldwide. Our previous work, with limited taxon sampling, supported monophyly of the lineage, with a series of clades of Old World (OW) 'justicioids' basal to Diclipterinae + a clade of all sampled members of New World (NW) 'justicioids'. This result is surprising because 'justicioids' exclusive of Diclipterinae share a number of synapomorphies including a rugula (a channel-like structure in the upper corolla lip that partially encloses the style) and anther 'complexity' (one or more of the following: thecae inserted at different heights on filaments, one theca sterile, thecae appendaged apically or basally). Our results suggest that these traits have been lost in Diclipterinae. Our present study expands the taxon sample >100%, with species chosen to represent nearly all likely genera of ‘justicioids’ and proposed sections of the large genus Justicia (ca. 500 species). We used sequence data from nrITS; cp trnG-S, trn-L(UAG)-ndhF, trnT-L, and analyzed them using parsimony and Bayesian inference. Results confirm the sister relationship between NW 'justicioids' and Diclipterinae, the latter expanded to include a number of OW 'justicioids' that were not sampled in our previous study. OW 'justicioids' form a series of at least four clades basal to NW 'justicioids' + Diclipterinae. Few traditionally recognized genera are monophyletic and most of these are Diclipterinae (e.g.,Dicliptera, Peristrophe, Hypoestes, Monechma, Rhinacanthus). Notably, Justicia is polyphyletic with species placed in essentially all resolved clades with the exception of 'core' Diclipterinae. However, there is some congruence between phylogenetic results and relationships proposed by earlier workers, as well as some infrageneric taxa of Justicia, both OW + NW, that correspond to clades.
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1 - Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, Research, 1500 North College Avenue, Claremont, CA, 91711, USA
2 - California Academy of Sciences, Department of Botany, 55 Music Concourse Drive, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CA, 94118, USA
Presentation Type: Oral Paper:Papers for BSA Sections
Location: Rendezvous A/Snowbird Center
Date: Tuesday, July 28th, 2009
Time: 10:45 AM